Maestre-Ferrín L, Burguera JA, Peñarrocha-Diago M, Peñarrocha-Diago M. Oromandibular dystonia: A dental approach. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2009 Jan 1;15 (1):e25-7.
Oromandibular dystonia consists of prolonged spasms of contraction of the muscles of the mouth and jaw. Primary idiopathic forms and secondary forms exist. Secondary dystonia develops due to environmental factors; some cases of cranial dystonia after dental procedure have been reported, but the causal relationship between these procedures and dystonia remains unclear. Traumatic situations in the mouth, such as poor aligned dentures or multiple teeth extractions may cause an impairment of proprioception of the oral cavity, leading to subsequent development of dystonia. The clinical characteristics of oromandibular dystonia are classified according to the affected muscles. The muscles involved may be the muscles of mastication, muscles of facial expression, or the muscles of the tongue. At present, there is no known cure for OMD. The mainstay of treatment for most focal dystonia is botulinum toxin injections. It is important for the dentist to be familiar with oromandibular dystonia, as it can develop afterdental treatment and is often misdiagnosed as a dental problem.