Peñarrocha-Oltra D, Candel-Martí E, Ata-Ali J, Peñarrocha-Diago M. Rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla with tilted implants: review of the literature. J Oral Implantol. 2013 Oct;39(5):625-32.
We review the evidence-based literature on the use of tilted implants in the rehabilitation of patients with maxillary atrophy. Studies from 1999 to 2010 on patients with atrophic maxilla rehabilitated with tilted implants were reviewed. Clinical series with at least 10 patients rehabilitated using tilted implants and a follow-up of at least 12 months after prosthetic load were included. Case reports and studies with missing data were excluded. In each study the following was assessed: surgical technique, prosthesis type, timing of implant loading, success rate and marginal bone loss of tilted and axial implants, complications and patient satisfaction level. Thirteen studies were included, reporting a total of 782 tilted and 666 axial implants in 319 patients. Success rates went from 91.3% to 100% for axial implants and from 92.1% to 100% for tilted implants; radiographic marginal bone loss went from 0.4 mm to 0.92 mm in tilted implants and from 0.35 mm to 1.21 mm in axial implants. No statistically significant differences were found in any of the studies. No surgical complications and only minor prosthetic complications were reported. High patient satisfaction was found with all types of prosthesis (fullarch fixed, partial fixed and overdentures) placed over tilted implants. The literature on tilted implants shows that implants placed with this technique, both used alone and combined with axially placed implants, and rehabilitated with different prosthetic options have high success rates, minimal complications and high patient satisfaction. However, lack of homogeneity among studies and relatively short follow-up periods for most studies make necessary more studies.